Progesterone

Progesterone

the Master Hormone in Women

Lifesyle

The international dietary committee advocates a specific quantum of these natural antioxidants through diet. Interestingly, environmental pollution has indeed affected most of these farm products. The use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and heavy metals in soil has a cumulative effect on human health. Enough evidence is available for the presence of phytoestrogen, xenoestrogen, and a host of other endocrine disruptors in the food. These plant-based nutrients can mimic or enhance the natural hormone’s health effects. While endocrine disruptors are found in many everyday products, this review aims to address endocrine disruptors from food in the Asian subcontinent. ‘Food for thought’ justifies the paradigm shift towards good endocrine health by swaying away from the conventional daily dietary recommendations.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the substances present in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action altering the normal homeostatic balance of an organism. Various validation studies have contributed to the growing knowledge of different EDCs and their mechanism of action (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). The previous known mechanism was that they exert their actions through nuclear hormone receptors, including Estrogen receptors (ERs), Androgen receptors (ARs), progesterone receptors, Thyroid receptors (TRs), and retinoid receptors, either acting as an agonist or as an antagonist (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). However, present scientific research has elucidated the mechanisms that are broader compared to the previously established.
Therefore, endocrine disruptors act via nuclear receptors, nonnuclear steroid hormone receptors (e.g., membrane ERs), nonsteroid receptors (e.g., neurotransmitter receptors such as the serotonin receptor, dopamine receptor, norepinephrine receptor), orphan receptors [e.g., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)—an orphan receptor], enzymatic pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis and/or metabolism, and numerous other mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009).
Green vegetables, fruits, cereals, and pulses are all rich sources of antioxidants. Retinoic acid, ascorbate, proanthocyanidins, tannins, saponins, melatonin, curcumin, allicin, and alpha-lipoic acid stand documented in plants as bioactive compounds.
The international dietary committee advocates a specific quantum of these natural antioxidants through diet. Interestingly, environmental pollution has indeed affected most of these farm products. The use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and heavy metals in soil has a cumulative effect on human health. Enough evidence is available for the presence of phytoestrogen, xenoestrogen, and a host of other endocrine disruptors in the food. These plant-based nutrients can mimic or enhance the natural hormone’s health effects. While endocrine disruptors are found in many everyday products, this review aims to address endocrine disruptors from food in the Asian subcontinent. ‘Food for thought’ justifies the paradigm shift towards good endocrine health by swaying away from the conventional daily dietary recommendations.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the substances present in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action altering the normal homeostatic balance of an organism. Various validation studies have contributed to the growing knowledge of different EDCs and their mechanism of action (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). The previous known mechanism was that they exert their actions through nuclear hormone receptors, including Estrogen receptors (ERs), Androgen receptors (ARs), progesterone receptors, Thyroid receptors (TRs), and retinoid receptors, either acting as an agonist or as an antagonist (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). However, present scientific research has elucidated the mechanisms that are broader compared to the previously established.
Therefore, endocrine disruptors act via nuclear receptors, nonnuclear steroid hormone receptors (e.g., membrane ERs), nonsteroid receptors (e.g., neurotransmitter receptors such as the serotonin receptor, dopamine receptor, norepinephrine receptor), orphan receptors [e.g., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)—an orphan receptor], enzymatic pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis and/or metabolism, and numerous other mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009).
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the substances present in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action altering the normal homeostatic balance of an organism. Various validation studies have contributed to the growing knowledge of different EDCs and their mechanism of action (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). The previous known mechanism was that they exert their actions through nuclear hormone receptors, including Estrogen receptors (ERs), Androgen receptors (ARs), progesterone receptors, Thyroid receptors (TRs), and retinoid receptors, either acting as an agonist or as an antagonist (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). However, present scientific research has elucidated the mechanisms that are broader compared to the previously established.
Therefore, endocrine disruptors act via nuclear receptors, nonnuclear steroid hormone receptors (e.g., membrane ERs), nonsteroid receptors (e.g., neurotransmitter receptors such as the serotonin receptor, dopamine receptor, norepinephrine receptor), orphan receptors [e.g., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)—an orphan receptor], enzymatic pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis and/or metabolism, and numerous other mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009).
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the substances present in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action altering the normal homeostatic balance of an organism. Various validation studies have contributed to the growing knowledge of different EDCs and their mechanism of action (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). The previous known mechanism was that they exert their actions through nuclear hormone receptors, including Estrogen receptors (ERs), Androgen receptors (ARs), progesterone receptors, Thyroid receptors (TRs), and retinoid receptors, either acting as an agonist or as an antagonist (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). However, present scientific research has elucidated the mechanisms that are broader compared to the previously established.
Therefore, endocrine disruptors act via nuclear receptors, nonnuclear steroid hormone receptors (e.g., membrane ERs), nonsteroid receptors (e.g., neurotransmitter receptors such as the serotonin receptor, dopamine receptor, norepinephrine receptor), orphan receptors [e.g., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)—an orphan receptor], enzymatic pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis and/or metabolism, and numerous other mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009).
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the substances present in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action altering the normal homeostatic balance of an organism. Various validation studies have contributed to the growing knowledge of different EDCs and their mechanism of action (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). The previous known mechanism was that they exert their actions through nuclear hormone receptors, including Estrogen receptors (ERs), Androgen receptors (ARs), progesterone receptors, Thyroid receptors (TRs), and retinoid receptors, either acting as an agonist or as an antagonist (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 2009). However, present scientific research has elucidated the mechanisms that are broader compared to the previously established.

Table 1

Drugs
  • Higher Chances of Breast Cancer
  • Genital birth defects in infant males such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism
Okada et al., (2001); IARC, (2012)
Insecticide
  • Skin Lesions
  • Male offspring such as
  • Hypospadias and undescended testes
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • CNS toxicity
Insecticide
  • Defects of the gonads
  • Reduced activity of the luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Necrotic changes in the seminiferous
  • Tubules
Alaa-Eldin et al. (2017)
Herbicide
  • Hepatic steatosis
Foulds et al., (2017); Harper AP (2020)
Herbicide
  • Oxidative stress, damages in liver and kidneys
  • Reproduction toxicity
  • Breast cancer
  • Endocrine disruption
Mink et al., (2012); Swanson et al., (2014); Mesnage et al., (2015b); Fluegge and Fluegge, (2016); Fortes et al., (2016); Myers et al., (2016)
Plastics
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Female infertility
  • Male sexual dysfunction
  • Reduced birth weight and atypical
  • Neurobehaviours in children
Rochester (2013); Okugbe and Songhe (2019)
Food Storage Materials
  • Reduced maternal levels of thyroid hormone
Horton et al., (2015); Steinmaus et al., (2016); Rubin et al., (2017); Knight et al., (2018)
Non-Stick Food Wrappers, Microwave Popcorn Bags
  • Alter cholesterol levels
  • Disrupt thyroid function
  • Harm liver and kidney function
  • Alter immune response
  • Raise the risk of ulcerative colitis
  • Harm reproductive health
  • Increase the risk of birth defects
  • Decrease infant birth weights
  • Cause tumours and cancer
Blake et al. (2020)

Table 2

  • Triterpenoids
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenolic acids
Breda et al., 2018
  • Tetrapenoids
  • Flavonoids
Breda et al., 2018
  • Phenolic acids
  • Flavonoids
  • Lignans
  • Triterpenoids
Breda et al., 2018; Singh et al., 2016
  • Tetrapenoids
Breda et al., 2018; Septembre et al., 2016
  • Monoterpenoids
  • Tetrapenoids
  • Flavonoids
  • Organic acids
Breda et al., 2018; Septembre et al., 2016; Martinez et al., 2021
  • Tetrapenoids
  • Organic acids
Septembre et al., 2016
  • Phenolic acid
  • Triterpenoids
Breda et al., 2018; Moreira et al., 2017
  • Carotenoids
  • Stilbenoids
  • Flavonoids
  • Lignans
  • Monoterpenoids
  • Tetrapenoids
Xavier et al., 2016; Breda et al., 2018
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phenolic acids
  • Lignans
  • Tetrapenoids
Breda et al., 2018
  • Phenolic acids
  • Flavonoids
  • Glycoalkaloids
Bouhajeb et al., 2020,
Makrogianni et al., 2017
  • Triterpenoids
  • Sulfur compounds
  • Flavonoids
  • Lignans
Breda et al., 2018
  • Triterpenoids
  • Tetrapenoids
Breda et al., 2018
  • Tetrapenoids
  • Triterpenoids
  • Flavonoids
  • Tannins
Casajus et al., 2019