References for Progesterone


  1. Dalton KM: PMS. The Essential Guide to Treatment Options. London, Thorsons, 1994.
  2. Lee JR: What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause, ed revised edition. New York, Hachette Book Group, 2004.
  3. Martinez PE, Rubinow DR, Nieman LK, Koziol DE, Morrow AL, Schiller CE, Cintron D, Thompson KD, Khine KK, Schmidt PJ: 5alpha-Reductase Inhibition Prevents the Luteal Phase Increase in Plasma Allopregnanolone Levels and Mitigates Symptoms in Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2016;41:1093-1102.
  4. Backstrom T, Andersson A, Andree L, Birzniece V, Bixo M, Bjorn I, Haage D, Isaksson M, Johansson IM, Lindblad C, Lundgren P, Nyberg S, Odmark IS, Stromberg J, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Turkmen S, Wahlstrom G, Wang M, Wihlback AC, Zhu D, Zingmark E: Pathogenesis in menstrual cycle-linked CNS disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003;1007:42-53.
  5. Pearlstein T, Steiner M: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: burden of illness and treatment update. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2008;33:291-301.
  6. Irwin RW, Brinton RD: Allopregnanolone as regenerative therapeutic for Alzheimer’s disease: translational development and clinical promise. Prog Neurobiol 2014;113:40-55.
  7. Chen S, Wang JM, Irwin RW, Yao J, Liu L, Brinton RD: Allopregnanolone promotes regeneration and reduces beta-amyloid burden in a preclinical model of Alzheimer’s disease. PLoS One 2011;6:e24293.
  8. Rapkin AJ, Mikacich JA: Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in adolescents. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2008;20:455-463.
  9. Schule C, Nothdurfter C, Rupprecht R: The role of allopregnanolone in depression and anxiety. Prog Neurobiol 2014;113:79-87.
  10. Bali A, Jaggi AS: Multifunctional aspects of allopregnanolone in stress and related disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1-3-2014;48:64-78.
  11. Jacob Teitelbaum MD, Bill Gottlieb CHC: Real Cause, Real Cure. Rodale Inc., 2011.
  12. Segebladh B, Borgstrom A, Nyberg S, Bixo M, Sundstrom-Poromaa I: Evaluation of different add-back estradiol and progesterone treatments to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:139-8.
  13. Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Ismail KM, Jones PW, O’Brien PM: The effectiveness of GnRHa with and without ‘add-back’ therapy in treating premenstrual syndrome: a meta analysis. BJOG 2004;111:585-593.
  14. Timby E, Backstrom T, Nyberg S, Stenlund H, Wihlback AC, Bixo M: Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder have altered sensitivity to allopregnanolone over the menstrual cycle compared to controls-a pilot study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2016;233:2109-2117.
  15. Rapkin AJ, Berman SM, Mandelkern MA, Silverman DH, Morgan M, London ED: Neuroimaging evidence of cerebellar involvement in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2-15-2011;69:374-380.
  16. Berman SM, London ED, Morgan M, Rapkin AJ: Elevated gray matter volume of the emotional cerebellum in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Affect Disord 4-5-2013;146:266-271.
  17. Gingnell M, Ahlstedt V, Bannbers E, Wikstrom J, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Fredrikson M: Social stimulation and corticolimbic reactivity in premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a preliminary study. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 2014;4:3.
  18. Gordon JL, Girdler SS, Meltzer-Brody SE, Stika CS, Thurston RC, Clark CT, Prairie BA, Moses-Kolko E, Joffe H, Wisner KL: Ovarian hormone fluctuation, neurosteroids, and HPA axis dysregulation in perimenopausal depression: a novel heuristic model. Am J Psychiatry 3-1-2015;172:227-236.
  19. Andreen L, Nyberg S, Turkmen S, van WG, Fernandez G, Backstrom T: Sex steroid induced negative mood may be explained by the paradoxical effect mediated by GABA-A modulators. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34:1121-1132.
  20. Epperson CN, Haga K, Mason GF, Sellers E, Gueorguieva R, Zhang W, Weiss E, Rothman DL, Krystal JH: Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid levels across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and those with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:851-858.
  21. Barth C, Villringer A, Sacher J: Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods. Front Neurosci 2015;9:37.
  22. Inoue Y, Terao T, Iwata N, Okamoto K, Kojima H, Okamoto T, Yoshimura R, Nakamura J: Fluctuating serotonergic function in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome: findings from neuroendocrine challenge tests. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007;190:213-219.
  23. Hantsoo L, Epperson CN: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Epidemiology and Treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2015;17:87.
  24. Huo L, Straub RE, Roca C, Schmidt PJ, Shi K, Vakkalanka R, Weinberger DR, Rubinow DR: Risk for premenstrual dysphoric disorder is associated with genetic variation in ESR1, the estrogen receptor alpha gene. Biol Psychiatry 10-15-2007;62:925-933.
  25. Dhingra V, Magnay JL, O’Brien PM, Chapman G, Fryer AA, Ismail KM: Serotonin receptor 1A C(-1019)G polymorphism associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:788-792.
  26. Morris MC, Rao U, Wang L, Garber J: Cortisol reactivity to experimentally manipulated psychosocial stress in young adults at varied risk for depression. Depress Anxiety 2014;31:44-52.
  27. Klatzkin RR, Bunevicius A, Forneris CA, Girdler S: Menstrual mood disorders are associated with blunted sympathetic reactivity to stress. J Psychosom Res 2014;76:46-55.
  28. Parry BL, Javeed S, Laughlin GA, Hauger R, Clopton P: Cortisol circadian rhythms during the menstrual cycle and with sleep deprivation in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and normal control subjects. Biol Psychiatry 11-1-2000;48:920-931.
  29. Progesterone prevents and resolves water retention :Horm Metab Res. 2004 Jun;36(6):381-6. Quinkler M et al.


  1. Filicori M (2015). “Clinical roles and applications of progesterone in reproductive medicine: an overview”. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 94 Suppl 161: 3–7. doi:10.1111/aogs.12791PMID26443945.
  2. ^ Ciampaglia W, Cognigni GE (2015). “Clinical use of progesterone in infertility and assisted reproduction”. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 94 Suppl 161: 17–27. doi:10.1111/aogs.12770PMID 26345161.
  3. ^ Choi SJ (2017). Use of progesterone supplement therapy for prevention of preterm birth: review of literatures. Obstet Gynecol Sci. 60 (5): 405–420. doi:10.5468/ogs.2017.60.5.405PMC 5621069PMID 28989916.

Bone Density/Osteoporosis:

  1. Prior JC, “Progesterone as a Bone-Trophic Hormone,” Endocrine Reviews 1990; 11:386-398.
  2. Progesterone builds bonesZhonghua Fu chan Ke Za Zhi. 1997 Sep;32(9):538-40. Chen L et al.; Zhonghua Fu chan Ke Za Zhi. 2004 Apr;39(4):250-3. Liang M et al
  3. Christiansen, C, Riis BJ, Nilas L, Rodbro P, “Uncoupling of bone formation and resorption by combined oestrogen and progesterone therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis,” Lancet 12 October 1985:800-801.
  4. Cummings SR, Mevitt MC, Browner WS et al for the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group, “Risk Factors for Hip Fracture in White Women,” N Engl J Med 1995;332:767-73.
  5. Dargent-Molina P, Favier F, Grandjean H, Baudoin C, Schott AM, Hausherr E, Meunier PJ, Br art G, for the EPIDOS Group, Fall-related factors and risk of hip fracture: the EPIDOS prospective study,” Lancet 1996; 348: 145-49.
  6. Dempster DW, Lindsay R, “Pathogenesis of osteoporosis,” Lancet 1993; 341:797-801.
  7. Ojasoo T, “Affiliations among steroid receptors as revealed by multivariate analysis of steroid binding data,” J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 1994; 48:31-46.

Breast Cancer

  1. Balancing effect of estrogen by progesterone important for preventing development of cancer :J Clinc Endo Metab. 2002;87(1):3-15. Hale et al.; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 19;103(38):14021-6. Pan H et al.
  2. Progesterone blocks UroKinase Plasminogen Activator and protect breast cancer proliferation :Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 Aug;78(2):185. McDonnel et al.; Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Sep;7(9):2880. Lin V et al.
  3. Progesterone blocks NF-KBeta and Cox-2 and protects against breast cancer:J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Oct 16; Mendelson CR et al.
  4. Progesterone protects breast tissue from HER 2/neu oncogene:J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Dec;102(1-5):241-9. Mendelson CR et al.
  5. Study showing that cancer biomarkers increased in primate group taking Provera while not in group taking progesteroneBreast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Jan;101(2):125-34. Wood CE et al.
  6. Women who are operated on to remove breast cancer during cycles when progesterone present enjoy increased survival rate:Breast J. 2006 Nov;12(6):518-525. Kontos M et al.
  7. Use of bioidentical progesterone cream on breasts to decrease benign and overall incidence of breast cancer:Cancer Detect Prev. 1999;23:290-298. Plu-Bureau G et al.
  8. Johns Hopkins study of significant increase mortality, cancer, and breast cancer in women who had low progesterone vs. normal progesterone:Am J Epidemiol. 1981;114(2):209-17 Cowan LD et al.
  9. French study showing increase in breast cancer for women using chemical progesterone (progestins) and decrease for those who use bioidentical progesterone:Int J Cancer. 2005 Apr10;114(3):448-54. Fournier A et al.
  10. Study showing women who used no hormones (vs. those using bioidentical progesterone and estrogen) increase in breast cancer: Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006, Aug;22(8):423-431 Espie M et al.
  11. Breast Cancer Incidence In Women With A History Of Progesterone Deficiency LINDA D. COWAN, LEON GORDIS, JAMES A. TONASCIA, GEORGEANNA SEEGAR JONES American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 114, Issue 2, August 1981, Pages 209–217,
Progesterone & Your Brain
  1. Progesterone promotes the function and maintenance of brainJ Neurobiol. 2006 Aug;66(9):916-28. Ciriza I et al.; Endocrine. 2006 Apr;29(2):271-4. Singh M.
  2. Progesterone increases myelinJ Neurotrauma. 2006 Feb;23(2):181-92. Labombarda F et al.
  3. Progesterone significantly aids in decreasing brain edemaPharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jul;84(3):420-8. Cutler SM et al
  4. Progesterone increases production of GABAJ Neuro Endocrinol. 1995 Mar;7(3):171-7. Bitrn D.; Brain Res. 1995 May 22;680(1-2):135-41. Picazo O et al.; Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jun;186(3):312-22. Frye CA et al.: J. Women’s health Gend Base Med. 2000 May;9(4):381-7. Fitzpatrick LA et al.
  5. Progesterone increase BDNF and decrease glutamate toxicityJ Neurosci Res. 2007 Aug 15;85(11):2441-9. Kaur P et al.
  6. Progesterone significantly aids in decreasing brain edemaPharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jul;84(3):420-8. Cutler SM et al
  7. Progesterone protects from seizuresJ Neuro Endocrinol. 1995 Mar;7(3):171-7. Bitrn D et al.; Brain Res. 1995 May 22;680(1-2):135-41. Picaso O et al.; Brain Res. 2006 Jul 26;1101(1):110-6. Lonsdale D et al.; Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jan 10;411(2):147-51. Lonsdale D et al.


  1. Progesterone builds bonesZhonghua Fu chan Ke Za Zhi. 1997 Sep;32(9):538-40. Chen L et al.; Zhonghua Fu chan Ke Za Zhi. 2004 Apr;39(4):250-3. Liang M et al
  2. Women given Provera for five years and switched to bioidentical progesterone for 6 months improve mood, decreased anxiety and depressionJ Women’s Health Gend Base Med. 2000 May;9(4):381-7. Fitzpatrick LA et al.
  3. Progesterone helps you to fall a sleep and maintain your sleepPoster Endocrinology Conference. 2004 New Orleans Callfries A.; Menopause. 2001;8(1):10-16. Montplaisir J et al.; Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(29):3575-82. Andersen ML et al.
  4. Progesterone improves immunityJ Cell Biochem. 2006 Sep 1;99(1):292-304. Chien EJ et al.
  5. Progesterone improves hearing: 2002; 40(8):1293-9. Alexander GM et al.
  6. Progesterone decreases allergiesInt J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2006 Oct-Dec;19(4):787-94. Vasiadi M et al.
  7. Progesterone decreases IBSInt J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2006 Oct-Dec;19(4):787-94. Vasiadi M et al.
  8. Progesterone decreases Interstitial CystitisInt J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2006 Oct-Dec;19(4):787-94. Vasiadi M et al.
  9. Progesterone prevents and resolves water retentionHorm Metab Res. 2004 Jun;36(6):381-6. Quinkler M et al.
  10. Progesterone a strong antagonist of AldosteroneHorm Metab Res. 2004 Jun;36(6):381-6. Quinkler M et al.
  11. Andreen L, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Nyberg S, Backstrom T: Allopregnanolone concentration and mood–a bimodal association in postmenopausal women treated with oral progesterone. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006;187:209-221.
  12. Andreen L, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Andersson A, Nyberg S, Backstrom T: Relationship between allopregnanolone and negative mood in postmenopausal women taking sequential hormone replacement therapy with vaginal progesterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005;30:212-224.